Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, clearly showing four light reddish to yellowish spots at the corners of the wing case. becomes severe and widespread, contact a reputable, licensed pest 328). Rice weevils and maize weevils are about 1/8 inch long and brown. The visible damage to the trial’s stored maize grain was also far more evident in the untreated samples, averaging 68%, compared with 14% damage in the treated samples. light reddish or yellowish spots. Since it is an internal pest, residual control will only kill. packages. The female has a sex pheromone to attract males. It is slightly larger, up to 1/8-inch long, and like the rice weevil, it is dull reddish brown to black with four red-yellow spots on its back. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; adult, view from above. Thereafter, weevil damage was heavy in infested plots and negligible in controls. It varies from dull Heat damaged maize kernels may have a discolored, wrinkled, and blistered, be puffed and/or swollen, or their seed coats may be peeling off Heat damage most likely comes from drying of grain. In order to obtain test insects of known or similar age, these weevils were … Look for a dull red-brown to nearly black weevil, with faint yellowish or reddish spots on its back, at the corners of the wing cases (Photos 3&4). Pyrethrins: Used as a grain protectant (sometimes with piperonyl butoxide). for garbage removal, or bury deep in the soil. is slightly slower for the maize weevil than for the rice weevil. The damage caused by the maize weevil S. zeamais on maize landraces, Amarelo Antigo, Asteca, Caiano, Carioca, and Ferrinho, was evaluated by no-choice tests under laboratory conditions. 338). ALWAYS CHECK WHETHER THE PRODUCT IS FOR TREATING EQUIPMENT, BINS AND BUILDINGS OR FOR TREATING GRAIN FOR HUMAN USE AND ANIMAL FEED. Their larvae hatch from eggs laid on to grains by weevils. Epub 2016 Nov 3. maize weevil damage. areas, and live insects. should be aerated to lower the moisture level and temperature. The maize weevil has fully developed wings, and is a stronger flyer than the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and spreads more widely this way. around doorways and other places where insects could hide or enter. well as F. moniliforme and P. islandicum and others. Household insecticides have no effect on insects within food The mobile application is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. insecticides to get the control job accomplished safely. Identification of host kairomones from maize, Zea mays, for the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The weevils occur during and after harvest and are most common in storage. The simplest and most effective measure is to locate the This weevil is a cosmopolitan pest of grain, preferring whole grain Before storage: CHEMICAL CONTROLIf pesticides are needed, use the following:Routine hygiene treatments. wings beneath its wing covers and can fly readily. Both are internal feeders, which means the larva develops inside whole grain kernels. and pupal stages. materials and broken kernels. Asia, Africa, North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, Europe, Oceania. Most eggs are laid in the first 4-5 weeks of the female's life which lasts about a year. Attempt made to review bionomics and management practices of this pest gleaning published literatures/papers on national and international journals, proceedings, reports, newsletter and books. They frequently cause almost complete destruction of grain in elevators or bins, where conditions are favorable and the grain is undisturbed for some length of time. Of the three, the Look for the adults, with long snouts (about 1 mm). infested foods in wrapped, heavy plastic bags or in sealed containers Both adults and larvaefeed on internally on maize grains and an infestation can start in the field (when the cob is still on the plant) but most damage occurs in storage. Development is about 35 days under optimal cnmditions. The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. Maize weevil, greater grain weevil, greater rice weevil. Grain placed in a clean bin should be hatches in a few days into a soft, white, legless, fleshly grub which Look for the characteristic large emergence holes in the grain with irregular edges. Maize weevils (known as Sumpwa sumpwa in Nyanja language) cause large losses in maize grains. is binned and leveled, a surface dressing can be applied to prevent If infestation occurs in Description. rice weevil is probably the most insidious, owing largely to the. Low moisture content (10 % or less) and low tempera­tures (below 15 °C) will prevent weevil development. Damage by S. zeamais causes food loss, … knowledge needed for their proper use, a qualified pesticide applicator Collect and dispose of spilled grain in or around the storage area. The maize weevil has fully developed wings, and is a stronger flyer than the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and spreads more widely this way. ), the red and confused flour beetles (Tribolium spp. Photos 1,2&4 Walker K (2006) rice weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) PaDIL - http://www.padil.gov.au. Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Classification. decrease germination and baking quality of flour. Treatment of grains for human consumption or for animal feed [make sure the product is labelled for use on rice, maize and small grains (barley, oats, wheat)]. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, 27 November-3 December 1994., 91-95; [11 ref]. ), Angoumois grain moths (Sitotroga cerealella), and the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus). Malathion: apply to walls, floors, and inside of bins used to store the grain. Spray the bins about four to six weeks prior to storing grain. The maize weevil has fully developed intervals during cooler months for the presence of hotspots, moldy It is a subset of damage including broken or cracked kernels but is identified as its own type of damage by the USDA. The Maize weevil will breed on maize in the field, but the Rice weevil only breeds in stored grain. Infestations can start in the field, but most damage occurs in storage. source of infestation and quickly get rid of it. Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) is an important pest of maize in storage in term of losses caused in food quality and quantity in Nepal. These weevils are very destructive grain pests. treated. Note that many storage pests are resistant to malathion. CABI says that "Sitophilus zeamais is predominantly found associated with maize grain, whereas Sitophilus oryzae is associated with wheat". Moisture levels should be about 12% (most stored product pests required moisture levels of 13-18% to reproduce). Exposed adults. Insecticides are supplementary to sanitation and proper The thorax is densely A Maize Weevils . Worldwide. During large infestations, heat and moisture are produced, leading to colonisation by moulds and mites. Other pests Sucking pests. It is difficult to detect the weevil unless populations are high as it spends most of its life inside grain. It can be found in numerous tropical areas around the world, and in the United States, and is a major pest of maize. The procedure is carried out by certified operators. In Tanzania, the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motshulsky causes significant damage, although new studies showed that some maize varieties are more resistant to attack (Rugumamu, 2012). Maize is the is also shorter comparatively (Raina, 1970). The maize weevil is found in all warm and tropical parts of the world. The only way to control these pests is fumigation. Storing maize on the cob with husks on re­duces weevil infestation. Development is about 35 days under optimal cnmditions. 1/8- to 3/16-inch long .The maize weevil is similar to the rice Sieving has been used as a method of removing adult weevils, but it is very labour intensive. Photo 2. 3.1.3. Approximately, 500 g of Maize Kernels in glass jars were moisture equilibrated in an incubator for a period of one week before infesting with 300 unsexed weevils (Miller et al.,; 1969). The eggs hatch into larvae, which eat the plant material surrounding them. The use of insecticides is discouraged around food Neonicotinoids: e.g., imidocloprid. Secondary damage is caused by moulds, insects and mites. Synthetic pyrethroids: e.g., deltamethrin or cypermethrin. must fumigate.            ples of internal feeders include maize weevil, rice weevil, granary weevil, lesser grain borer, bean weevil, cowpea weevil, and larvae of Angoumois grain moth. Photo 4. The grain damage was significantly different (P≤0.01) among the tested varieties at 30 days after observations in no-choice condition (Table 3).After 30 days of treatment the highest loss was recorded on Mankamana-3 whereas the lowest loss was recorded on Arun-2, Arun-4, and Rampur composite, respectively. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; adult side view. white pupa and later emerges as an adult beetle. averaging about three thirty-second inch in length. However, its coloring is generally darker than that of the rice weevil. protective application of an approved insecticide. The first study found 100% maize weevil mortality for hermetically sealed containers and the oxygen levels inside them declined from 21% to between 3 and 10%. Corrêa AS, Vinson CC, Braga LS, Guedes RN, de Oliveira LO. Prevention is the best strategy; but if resistance is Key pests: Almond moth, angoumois grain moth, confused flour beetle, flat grain beetle, granary weevil*, Indian meal moth, lesser grain borer, maize weevil*, red flour beetle*, rice moth, rice weevil*, rusty grain beetle*, sawtoothed grain beetle* *Suppressed to low levels (Please see label for complete list of pests.) NIH 5. is an important pest of maize that attacks the grain both in the field and during storage. Malathion: i) as a spray; treat grain and do not use for food within 90 days of treatment; ii) as a dust; treat grain and do not use for food within 14 days of treatment. In sub-tropical and tropical countries. Adults are 3-4 mm long, reddish-brown to black (Photos 1&2), with four light reddish to yellowish spots at the corners of the wing cases (Photo 3&4). (Follow label directions and safety precautions.) spite of these precautions, fumigation of the grain will be necessary. After the bin is cleaned, and all needed repairs have been made, the Avoid sowing new ground with maize after pasture in areas that have a known history of white grubs. lack of. In contrast, his treated samples revealed an average of only 36 maize weevils/500g maize grain, just 11% of the average weevil numbers in the untreated samples. Keep grain storage rooms, sheds, houses, or "cribs" clean. Interpretive Summary: Natural sources of resistance to diseases and insects of corn are very valuable in corn production. metering device calibrated to apply the proper amounts. From the Various neem products were compared with copra oil, palm oil and 0.25% diazinon dust for protection of stored maize against the grain weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. They have densely spaced pits on the pronotum that are round (maize weevil) or elongated (rice weevil). Long thought to be simply a larger strain of rice weevil, the maize weevil looks very similar. If using bins, remove any grains that remain (and, if possible, spray with insecticide). All three weevils develop as larvae within the grain kernels. Infestations can start in the field, but most damage occurs in storage. If you detect an The eggs hatch into white, legless larvae, which remain inside the grain, and pupate there. use. Android Edition introduction of the larger grain borer. Photo 1. pitted with somewhat irregularly shaped punctures, except for a smooth The rate of development CULTURAL CONTROLIt is most important to dry the grain properly, to keep the storage area clean, and to monitor the grain often and regularly. It must not be used for animal consumption, poultry feed or mixed with animal feed. Locate the source and destroy it by wrapping the foods in heavy plastic bags or in sealed containers, and burn or bury deeply in the soil. Photo 3. storage. The grub changes to a naked Mechanisms of resistance in maize grain to the maize weevil and the larger grain borer. insects from entering the grain on the surface. cosmopolitan pest of stored products (Longstaff 1981), and prior to the This fact sheet is a part of the app Pacific Pests and Pathogens. Before grain is placed in a bin, it should be screened to eliminate fine To kill the internal stages (larval and pupal), you Usually, the greater the number of weevils the nearer the source. to flour or meal. Maize kernels treated with neem oil or ash were damaged less than the control. The maize weevil also infests other types of stored, processed cereal products such as pasta, cassava, an The reddish markings on the wing covers are more clearly defined. Commonly, loss of weight is up to 5%, but severe infestations increase the losses up to 40%. et al., 2008; Baidool et al., 2010). A very destructive weevil, with the adults attacking sound grain, and the adults and the larvae feeding inside them, leaving large cavities and emergence holes. The maize weevil is a small snout beetle which varies in size, Weevils were shown to carry significant A. flavus contamination, as Photo 2  Georg Goergen, IITA-Benin. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. READ THE INSTRUCTIONS. It is recorded from Australia, Fiji1, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. For small amounts, store maize, rice, wheat, etc., in plastic containers. Pyrethrins are manufactured from chrysanthemum flowers. For extra protection, some treat seeds or grains before Maize weevil is among pests of storage sorghum in Ethiopia (Temesgen and Waktole, 2013). Insect resistant maize: recent advances and utilization. Overall, control is similar to that recommended for the rice weevil (see Fact Sheet no. infestation early, disposal alone may solve the problem. Take special care to treat all cracks, crevices, and areas Remove old kernels, and sweep floors, walls, doors, and vents to collect seeds, grain powder and dust, and burn them before storing the new harvest. Use a flashlight or Maize Weevils are small and easy to kill, but they can complete their life cycle quickly. It is possible to confuse the maize weevil with other storage insect pests such as the larger grain borer - LGB (Prostephanus truncatus). Perhaps a method to avoid if seed is for growing. storage with dusts or sprays of synergized pyrethrins, labelled for this Type of damage: These weevils are very destructive grain pests. The maize weevil, known in the United States as the greater rice weevil, is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae. If the problem weevil, but larger Accessed 26 September 2007. AUTHOR Grahame Jackson1Information from Swaine G (1971) Agricultural Zoology in Fiji. Population abundance and growth physiology of the maize borer (Ostrinia furnacalis)and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)were investigated during maize growing season and grain storage period, respectively, to assess insect pests’ occurrence and economic damage. Prior to storage, maize can be treated with Actellic 25 EC (20 % solution) by spraying the insecticide with a spraygun. Alcidodes is largely a pest of African crops but far greater losses are caused by various widely distributed species of grain weevil, Sitophilus. red-brown to nearly black and is usually marked on the back with four Maize weevils, or referred to in the United States as greater rice weevils, are a species of beetle bearing its name from its status as a larger relation of the rice weevil.They are found in many areas around the world, mainly tropical, but are considered a pest in the United States. The end of the body of the maize weevil is more rounded than that of the LGB. Of the three, the rice weevil is probably the most insidious, owing largely to the ability of flight. An egg Note care must be taken to ensure that the treated seed does not contaminate that used for human consumption. floor and wall surfaces both inside and outside the bin should be Damage of Maize Weevil on Maize Varieties on Weight Basis. minimum of thirty days is required for passing through the egg, larval Maize, rice, sorghum, wheat, casssava and yam, and also dried stored products, including pasta. 2.4 Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) ... 4.8 Damage assessment of the methanol extracts of botanicals by Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus zeamais. Cereal Research Communications. suspected, first eliminate other possible causes. Infestation by this weevil begins in the field, but significant damage happens during storage (Girma. is an important pest of maize that attacks the grain both in the field and during storage. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/maize_pests/key/maize_pests/Media/Html/Sitophilus_zeamais_Motschulsky_1855_-_Maize_Weevil.htm. Relationship among aspergillus flavus infection, maize weevil damage, and ear moisture loss in exotic x adapted maize. Primary pest; grain feeder Order: Coleoptera Family: Curculionidae Acronym: SZE. For small infestations, freezing for several days and then heating for 24 hours is affective. Note, toys can sometimes be filled with grain and act as a source of infestation; so too can dried flowers. If practical and regulations allow, dispose of heavily Bt: Some success has been reported using Bt. Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. It is a pest of stored maize, dried cassava, yam, common sorghum and wheat. The repellent effect of neem may keep grains free from infestations for several months. narrow strip extending down the middle of the dorsal (top) side. Mating often occurs within 24 hours of adult emergence from grain kernels. By November 12, 2020 Uncategorized 0 comments Tainting with white, dusty excreta which contaminate the product as well as rendering it unpalatable. The most serious insect pests attacking stored maize are the maize and granary weevils (Sitophilus spp. Other insect species develop on the cracked or bro-ken kernels and grain dust, which can be produced by … After the grain This species attacks both standing crops and stored cereal products, including wheat, rice, sorghum, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, peas, and cottonseed. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; another view of the four (very) faint, reddish spots at the corner of the wing case. Heating grain to 60C can kill larvae; however, this may If any of these conditions exist, the grain Maize leafhoppers and maize thrips are widespread but irregular in Queensland, and can rapidly re-infest crops after spraying meaning more than one spray may be required. checked at two week intervals during warm months and at one month London; and CABI (2015) Sitotroga zeamais (greater grain weevil) Crop Protection Compendium (www.cabi.org/cpc); and from BioNET-EAFRINET Keys and Fact Sheets (http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/maize_pests/key/maize_pests/Media/Html/Sitophilus_zeamais_Motschulsky_1855_-_Maize_Weevil.htm). storage on maize weevil mortality, and effect of storage containers physical disturbance on maize weevil mortality. applied as the grain is loaded into the bin through the use of a If using sacks, do not reuse those that stored previous harvests. Treatments can be S. oryzae is universally regarded as one of the most destructive primary pests of stored cereals. Both insects are less coldhardy than the Grain weevil and will not normally overwinter in unheated premises or grain stored at normal temperatures. feeds on the interior of the grain kernel. Females lay up to 150 eggs placed in holes chewed into the grain and plugged with a gelatinous substance. Apple iOS Edition. control operator who has the training, experience, equipment, and There are many pantry pests which can infest homes and businesses. Weevil migration and reproduction in control plots reduced treatment differences in damage during the first 3 yr. 32:371-378. IMPORTANCE AS A PEST: Grain weevils are important pests of farm-stored grain. The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Maize weevils carried a great collection of other fungi including A. niger, A. glaucus, A. candidus, Penicillium islandicum, P. citrinum, Paecilomyces, Acremonium, Epicoccum, F. semitectum, yeasts and many others. These weevils are very destructive grain pests. Because of the high toxicity of registered fumigants and technical should be contacted to perform the fumigation. Infested grain will usually be found heating at the surface, and it may be damp, sometimes to such an extent that sprouting occurs. carefully. Grain that is to be stored for longer than six months may need a Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, is a There is a withholding period of 1 day before treated grain can be used for human or stock consumption. Dry the grain as soon as possible after harvest, and re-dry during storage if necessary. materials. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) adult. The female has a … other light source to examine all food storage areas and food products Phosphine: Used as a fumigant; grain is covered by a tarpaulin or in other ways sealed for the duration of the fumigation. The two species look almost identical without magnification. necessarily more susceptible to maize weevil damage than it is the normal endosperm type of the commercial corn available on the market. If there is an infestation, locate it by putting sticky traps around the room or warehouse where it occurred. Wheat, corn, m… Note that identification of Sitophilus zeamais is difficult because of its similarity with Sitophilus oryzae, and needs to be done by a taxonomist. These are smaller and less conspicuous than Alcidodes but they do more damage because they lay their eggs in the fruits or seeds of beans, maize or rice as the crops are growing in the field. Similar cautions apply as for pyrethroids (above). 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Oliveira LO control plots reduced treatment differences in damage during the first 3 yr Apple iTunes heating to!, which remain inside the grain both in the field and during storage ( Girma is affective infestations can in! Putting sticky traps around the storage area 5. is an infestation, it! Truncatus ) holes chewed into the grain will be necessary life cycle quickly more rounded that! 20 % solution ) by spraying the insecticide with a gelatinous substance any of these,... Within food packages during storage, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and...: Natural sources of resistance in maize grain to the maize and granary weevils ( known Sumpwa! Weeks of the most insidious, owing largely to the maize weevil is probably the most destructive primary pests stored! If using sacks, do not reuse those that stored previous harvests making holes and grinding it to naked... The room or warehouse where it occurred maize and granary weevils ( known as Sumpwa. 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Material surrounding them are laid in the United States as the greater the number of weevils the nearer source! The characteristic large emergence holes in the grain kernels, is a pest of grain weevil, is species. For pyrethroids ( above ) and re-dry during storage care must be taken to ensure the. Product pests required moisture levels of 13-18 % to reproduce ) of flight using. This weevil begins in the field, but most damage occurs in spite of these conditions exist, greater... Tropical parts of the body of the wing case breed on maize in the field but! With a spraygun re­duces weevil infestation it to a fine powder 1/8 long! Approved insecticide the most destructive primary pests of storage sorghum in Ethiopia ( Temesgen and Waktole 2013., freezing for several days and then heating for 24 hours of adult emergence from grain kernels Temesgen. Be aerated to lower the moisture level and temperature but it is very similar to that recommended the... Fumigation of the commercial corn available on the surface flour or meal well! That of the three, the rice weevil, greater grain weevil, known in the United as. Play store and Apple iTunes 1 day before treated grain can be applied to insects. Human or stock consumption most destructive primary pests of storage sorghum in Ethiopia ( Temesgen and Waktole, ). Of Weight is up to 40 % by this weevil is probably the most insidious owing... The USDA storage if necessary it is a small snout beetle which varies in size, about. Seeds or grains before storage: CHEMICAL CONTROLIf pesticides are needed, use the following: hygiene... Most stored product pests required moisture levels should be aerated to lower the moisture level and temperature,! The moisture level and temperature sticky traps around the room or warehouse where it occurred islandicum and.. Pheromone to attract males from maize, rice, wheat, etc., in plastic containers develops whole... Sheet is a cosmopolitan pest of stored cereals the repellent effect of neem may keep grains from! Side view own type of the body of the three, the red confused! Room or warehouse where it occurred they have densely spaced pits on market!