41 Squadron RNZAF providing resupply missions from Singapore. The team helped train South Vietnamese platoon commanders in weapons and tactics. This team also provided first aid instruction and specialist medical instruction at Dong Ba Thin's 50-bed hospital. The arrival of this Troop raised New Zealand's deployment to Vietnam to its peak – 543 men. Despite a brief upsurge in protests following and resumption of the air war against North Vietnam in the spring of 1972, the factionalization of the movement and the withdrawal of most U.S. forces led to a decline in protests. On 16 July 1965, they fired their first shells near Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City). It was decided the battery would join 1ATF and serve with Royal Australian Artillery field regiments. The New Zealand government resisted American pressure to contribute to the conflict because it doubted the effectiveness of external intervention and feared that this could spark a wider war, possibly with China. From 1961, New Zealand came under pressure from the United States of America to contribute military and economic assistance to South Vietnam, but refused. Even so, there was a vocal and well-organised anti-war movement in New Zealand. [61] Along with other New Zealand branches of service, RNZAOC personnel went about their business with their Australian counterparts in all aspects of 1 ALSG's support functions for Australian and New Zealand forces in Vietnam. There has been much resentment within their ranks at perceived official and public indifference to the physical and psychological problems experienced by so many veterans due to exposure to Agent Orange and post-traumatic stress disorder. In 2006, the New Zealand government signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Vietnam veterans and their families. The anti-war movement grew during the closing stages of the Vietnam War. A Special Air Service (SAS) troop arrived the following year. Protest movements in New Zealand against the Vietnam War divided society between those who were in support of New Zealand’s involvement and those who thought New Zealand had no place in the war. The gunners joined an Australian field regiment, the infantrymen formed part of an Anzac battalion and the SAS served with an Australian SAS squadron. The conflict and the anti-war movement ushered in a new era of debate about New Zealand's place in the world. New Zealand had also established its post-Second World War security agenda around countering communism in South-East Asia and of sustaining a strategy of forward defence, and so needed to be seen to be acting upon these principles. [80], In 2019 the Australian government awarded the Australian Unit Citation for Gallantry to all members of 161 Battery for their part in the Battle of Coral-Balmoral. One of the first acts of Prime Minister Norman Kirk's Labour Party government (elected in December 1972) was to withdraw both training teams and the New Zealand headquarters in Saigon. [13], In November 1968, New Zealand's contribution to the 1st Australian Task Force was increased by the deployment of 4 Troop, New Zealand Special Air Service, comprising an officer and 25 other ranks. By the latter stages of the war, the anti-war movement had merged with other major causes – women's rights, the anti-apartheid movement – to spawn what some termed the ‘Vietnam Generation’. A second, 18-strong team arrived in March 1972. The average bed-state was 92 and approximately 46,000 outpatients (mostly civilians) were treated annually before the team's withdrawal in December 1971. Can you tell us more about the information on this page? While it was considered that New Zealand should support South Vietnam, as Holyoake alleged; Whose will is to prevail in South Vietnam? The New Zealand Army Detachment (NEWZAD) engineers were replaced by the Battery in July 1965, which consisted of nine officers and 101 other ranks and four 105 mm L5 pack howitzers (later increased to six, and in 1967 replaced with 105 mm M2A2 Howitzers). 1967: On 29 October, a big fight between police and protesters occurs outside the home of the American consul at Paritai Drive in Auckland. In July 1967 President Lyndon B. Johnson sent two of his principal advisers, Clark Clifford and Gen. Maxwell Taylor, to Australia and New Zealand with an urgent mission. 9 Squadron, which was flying UH-1 Iroquois helicopters as troop transports. 1969: Flour bombs, paint and eggs thrown in protest over a visit of a high-ranking United States politician. Publication date: November 2019 NZ RRP (incl. From protest about war – be it the New Zealand Wars, the Great War, the Vietnam War or the invasion of Iraq – to trade union action, protests against aparthei… [71], The two New Zealand training teams were withdrawn from Vietnam in December 1972.[72]. Holyoake justified New Zealand's lack of assistance by pointing to its military contribution to the Indonesia-Malaysian Confrontation, but eventually the government decided to contribute. Subsequently, a few served with the second of the two New Zealand training teams deployed to Vietnam after combat troops withdrew in 1971. RNZAF personnel were also posted to HQ V Force and worked primarily in Saigon in a range of liaison duties. The end of this conflict coincided with a significant change in New Zealand’s approach to regional security. [19] On 1 June 2 RAR was replaced by 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (4 RAR) and the joint Australian and New Zealander infantry forces became 4 RAR/NZ (ANZAC) again with a New Zealander as 2IC, Major ATA Mataira. [citation needed], In December 2006, the New Zealand Government, the Ex-Vietnam Services Association (EVSA) and the Royal New Zealand Returned and Services Association (RNZRSA) agreed to, and signed, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) following the recommendations of the Joint Working Group, designated with advocacy for Veteran's concerns. [76], Three RNZN personnel served with the US Navy on a Junior Officer Exchange program in 1971, each posted on the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk and destroyer USS William H. Standley off the coast of North Vietnam. Both companies served in the 1st Australian Task Force in Nui Dat, Phuoc Tuy Province. For a growing number of New Zealanders, their country's participation in the conflict triggered a re-examination of its foreign policy and identity. It makes up part of a broader study into the causes, events and consequences of the Vietnam War. The 2IC for the final ANZAC Battalion rotation was RNZIR Major Donald Stuart McIver.[38]. The New Zealand headquarters established in Saigon in 1964 was renamed "Headquarters Vietnam Force" (HQ V Force) on 2 July 1965. [12] One RNZAF member of the NZSMT, Sgt Gordon Watt, was killed by a booby trap in 1970.[13]. It also upheld New Zealand's national interests of countering communism in South-East Asia. But the students all acted from a common belief that the Vietnam War was wrong. These allowed people in and from New Zealand to view and experience the realities of international events and movements such as anti-Vietnam War protests, the new counter-culture in the United States and protests organized by the anti-apartheid movement. Despite its misgivings, the New Zealand government feared that a failure to contribute to the escalating conflict in Vietnam would compromise its 1951 ANZUS defence pact with the United States and Australia, an alliance on which New Zealand’s long-term security was seen to depend. [83] Two New Zealanders serving with the United States Marine Corps,[84] one serving in the US Army and one serving with the Australian Army were also killed in action.[85]. In 1963 Prime Minister Keith Holyoake agreed to send non-combatant troops into the Vietnam War. One focus of protest was the Vietnam War. The 2IC for this rotation was RNZIR Major Roy Thomas Victor Taylor. New Zealand medics start work in South Vietnam, New Zealand artillery opens fire in Vietnam, Vietnam War protesters greet US Vice-President, New Zealand Red Cross worker killed in Vietnam. [39], Over the five-year period, more than 1,600 New Zealand soldiers of the nine NZ rifle companies engaged in a constant round of jungle patrols, ambushes, and cordon-and-search operations in both battalion and independently conducted operations, for a loss of 24 killed and 147 wounded.[40]. This page was last edited on 16 September 2020, at 13:18. Explore activists and protests like Bastion Point, The Land March and the 1981 Springbok tour. In contrast to the world wars, New Zealand’s contribution was modest. This was the first war in which New Zealand did not fight alongside its traditional ally, Great Britain. The anti-Vietnam War protests are often regarded as the beginning of the ANZUS alliance breakdown between New Zealand and the United States. Captain. [24], The New Zealand infantry companies in 6 RAR/NZ played major roles in two extremely significant and successful operations conducted by the 1st Australian Task Force in 1969 and 1970. Fought between the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the US-backed Republic of Vietnam in the south, it ended with the defeat of South Vietnam in April 1975. 1831901 In 2014 it was revised by Gareth Phipps. America had been through nearly twenty years of the Cold War and they were … These programs were known as "Pacification" and "Vietnamization" respectively as part of the "Winning Hearts And Minds" strategy being undertaken by the Americans. Royal NZ Corps of Signals HQ 1 ATF", https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/photo/2nzattv-departure-svn-19-dec-72, https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/vietnam-war-map, https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/resources/about-vietnam-veterans-list, "75 Sqn Ground Crew in Vietnam 1970 | Wings Over New Zealand", "Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) Edward Grant Steel", "Australia honours Kiwi Vietnam veterans with first-of-a-kind citation", "Kiwis to get Aussie Unit Citation for Gallantry", "Virtual Vietnam Veterans Wall of Faces – JAMES E LOTT – MARINE CORPS", "Fact sheet 9: Protest and the Vietnam War", "Joint Working Group: On Concerns of Viet Nam Veterans", "Viet Nam Veterans:Government's Response to the Joint Working Group on the Concerns of Viet Nam Veterans", "Government probes claims NZ exported Agent Orange", "NZ admits supplying Agent Orange during war", http://www.safe2use.com/ca-ipm/01-05-16c.htm, "Concern prompts new review of dioxin study", "Health support for Taranaki residents exposed to dioxin", Vietnam War Bibliography: Australia and New Zealand, New Zealand and the Vietnam War (NZHistory.net.nz), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Zealand_in_the_Vietnam_War&oldid=978702989, Use New Zealand English from February 2012, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Articles needing additional references from May 2009, All articles needing additional references, All articles with links needing disambiguation, Articles with links needing disambiguation from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1967: Two members of the left-wing Progressive Youth Movement lay a protest wreath on, 1967: 21 arrests during an Auckland protest against the visit of South Vietnam's Premier, Air Vice-Marshal. In 1967 two RNZAF pilots were seconded to the Royal Australian Air Force's No. [34] This tour continued to be focused mainly upon the "Pacification" program which 1 ATF had adopted as its first priority in April 1969. Some of these attachments were planned as part of officers' career planning by Defence Headquarters; others were opportunity attachments through contact with Allied commanders at many levels. 1975 - The first reunion of New Zealand Vietnam veterans was held. It includes controversies such as incidents of "friendly fire", allegations of atrocities, grievances over Agent Orange, and Maori participation in V Force. Not until June 1964 did twenty-five Army engineers arrive in South Vietnam. They also triggered a backlash. [53][54][55] Two RNZE sappers were killed while serving with the RNZIR infantry companies. [7] It was seen as in the nation's best interests to do so—failure to contribute even a token force to the effort in Vietnam would have undermined New Zealand's position in ANZUS and could have had an adverse effect on the alliance itself. [32][33], At the end of April 1970, a new 2 RAR from Australia and new Victor Company from Singapore arrived and on 15 May, Whisky 3 (now six months into their tour) and Victor 5 merged with 2 RAR to became for the second time 2 RAR/NZ (ANZAC). 37 New Zealand serviceman, mostly Commissioned Officers are recorded on the Flinkenberg List as having served with U.S detachments during the war. In line with reductions in American and Australian strength in Vietnam, New Zealand began the gradual withdrawal of its combat forces as the training teams were arriving. New Zealand's Vietnam War. )[14][15] A NZ Component was established at Nui Dat to manage national administration of the New Zealand contingents within 1 ATF. On 16 April 1969, 1 ATF was advised of a change to operational priorities, with top priority given to eradicating the Viet Cong presence and influence among the civilian populations, followed by the upskilling of the South Vietnamese military forces. [36], On 6 May 1971 Victor 5 was replaced by Victor 6 and on 22 May 2 RAR was replaced by 4 RAR. The new "ANZAC Battalion" was the only Australian battalion to have five rifle companies. Most operations in Phuoc Tuy were regular patrols or cordon and search operations. The protests against the Vietnam War were a series of demonstrations against American involvement in the conflict between North and South Vietnam. 1969: Fire crackers thrown at an election meeting addressed by the Prime Minister with 30 arrests. The team worked for civilians at the Binh Dinh Province Hospital, in Qui Nhon, an overcrowded, and dirty facility almost completely lacking equipment and bedding. The Vietnam War. For those who served in Vietnam, the war left a searing legacy. In May 1965, Prime Minister Keith Holyoake announced that New Zealand would send a combat unit to join the United States-led coalition in Vietnam. The Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps was not represented as its own unit in Vietnam and members instead served within other New Zealand and Australian units including 161 Bty RNZA, V Force HQ, the ANZAC Battalions (Command and Support), the RNZIR companies, 1 ALSG, and in the NZAATV teams. See more ideas about vietnam protests, vietnam, vietnam war. [89], From 1962 until 1987, the 2,4,5T herbicide was manufactured at an Ivon Watkins-Dow plant in Paritutu, New Plymouth which was then shipped to U.S. military bases in South East Asia. New techniques. The final and sole New Zealand infantry company was integrated with B, C, and D companies of 4 RAR to become 4 RAR/NZ (ANZAC) for the second time. New Zealand protests were similar to those in the United States– criticising the policies of the United States government and challenging seriously for the first time New Zealand's alliance-based security, calling for a more 'independent' foreign policy which was not submissive to that of the United States and denying that com… [73][74] These were not always formal postings as such. We were the first mass movement against a war in American … Meet the NZHistory.net.nz team, New Zealand gunners loading L5 Howitzer into APC. After combat troop withdrawals in 1971 several RNZAMC personnel were part of the NZAATV teams. New Zealand focused its defence strategy on ‘forward defence’ in Asia – an attempt to keep communism as far away from its shores as possible. New Zealand police raids: Ruatoki and throughout the country Several people charged as terrorists, but not found guilty for that offence. Instead in April 1963 New Zealand confined its assistance to sending a civilian surgical team. All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. New Zealand's road to Vietnam. Wicksteed, Major M.R. [2] The surgical team was initially made up of seven men and would eventually grow to sixteen, and remained in the country until 1975. [37] This would be the final ANZAC Battalion before Australian and New Zealand combat troops were withdrawn in December 1971. [87] The MoU provides formal acknowledgement of the toxic environment New Zealand Vietnam Veterans faced during their service abroad in Vietnam, and the after-effects of that toxin since the servicemen and women returned to New Zealand. 1 NZATTV was made up of advisors from all branches of service, a number of whom had served in the RNZIR companies and in other New Zealand branches of service. In 2005, the New Zealand government confirmed that it supplied Agent Orange chemicals to the United States military during the conflict. This web feature was originally adapted from Roberto Rabel's entry in The Oxford companion to New Zealand military history and produced by the NZHistory.net.nz team. Ian McGibbon - The Vietnam War: NZ's Story. 161 Bty served under command of the U.S 173rd Airborne Brigade from 1965–1966. RNZAF transport aircraft supported New Zealand forces in Vietnam throughout the war. The 2IC was filled by RNZIR Officer, Major Robert Ian Thorpe.[17][18]. Like their counterparts overseas, local protestors espoused moral objections to New Zealand’s participation in the Vietnam War, including opposition to the weapons and tactics being engaged, and their impact on innocent civilians. The Vietnam experience was also important as a test of the country's relationship with the United States. Sailors from the HMNZS Taranaki in the foreground, with police and anti Vietnam war protesters, at the opening of Parliament in Wellington, in 1969. From 1966, New Zealand units were integrated within the 1st Australian Task Force at Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy province. Although under operational command of the Australian SAS Squadron Commander when deployed into the field on operations, 4 Tp NZSAS was an independent command and self-sufficient. The new foreign policy which follows as a result of these protests is the reason behind New Zealand rejecting visits from ships from the United States over anti-nuclear protests during the period of time after 1985. The first New Zealand troops into action were the gunners of 161 Battery, Royal New Zealand Artillery. Jan 20, 2019 - Explore Larry Hellie's board "Vietnam Protests", followed by 140 people on Pinterest. By then, more than 3000 military personnel had served with New Zealand’s Vietnam (V) Force in Vietnam. Based at Dong Ba Thin, near Cam Ranh Bay, it helped train Cambodian battalions. April 1963: NZ civilian surgical team arrives in VietnamJune 1964: NEWZAD arrives in VietnamJuly 1965: NEWZAD withdrawn; 161 Battery RNZA arrives in VietnamJune 1966: 161 Bty comes under operational control of 1ATF at Nui Dat, Phuoc Tuy provinceAugust 1966: 161 Bty involved in the Battle of Long TanApril 1967: NZSMT arrives in VietnamMay 1967: V Company 1RNZIR arrives in VietnamNovember 1967: V Coy replaced by V2 CoyDecember 1967: W Company 1RNZIR arrives in VietnamMarch 1968: NZ infantry companies integrate with 2RAR to form 2RAR/NZ (Anzac) Battalion at Nui Dat, Phuoc Tuy provinceMay 1968: V2 Coy replaced by V3 CoyNovember 1968: W Coy replaced by W2 CoyMay 1969: V3 Coy replaced by V4 CoyNovember 1969: W2 Coy replaced by W3 CoyMay 1970: V4 Coy replaced by V5 CoyNovember 1970: W3 Coy withdrawn from VietnamJanuary 1971: 1NZATTV arrives in VietnamMay 1971: 161 Bty withdrawn from Vietnam; V5 Coy replaced by V6 CoyDecember 1971: NZSMT and V6 Coy withdrawn from VietnamMarch 1972: 2NZATTV arrives in VietnamDecember 1972: Training teams withdrawn from VietnamMarch 1975: NZ civilian surgical team withdrawn from VietnamApril 1975: NZ Ambassador evacuated from Saigon; last RNZAF flight out of Vietnam, See detailed timeline (VietnamWar.govt.nz). The majority of 4 RAR/NZ withdrew from Nui Dat to Vũng Tàu on 7 November 1971. Parade 1998, a national reunion in Wellington in June 1998, received government assistance. Thousands rallied against the war in notable public actions between 1967 and 1971. There were calls for a more independent foreign policy that was not subservient to the United States. Captain Royal NZ Armoured Corps Attached 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry, US Army", "Capt Edwin Allerton Donald Brooker | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/sites/default/files/documents/honours-awards/flanagan-dfc.pdf, https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/sites/default/files/documents/honours-awards/benyon-bem.pdf, "Mention in Despatches (m.i.d.) While the anti-war movement had little impact on New Zealand foreign policy, it did cause the National government to mount a detailed public defence of its stance on Vietnam. American pressure continued for New Zealand to contribute military assistance,[6] as the United States would be deploying combat units (as opposed to merely advisors) itself soon, as would Australia. [68], Members of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals served in all New Zealand units in Vietnam, including RNZA, RNZIR, NZSAS, V Force HQ and as part of the NZ Component at Nui Dat. During the first Indo-China War (1946-1954) between the communist-dominated Viet Minh and France, New Zealand accepted the British-American view that Vietnam was a crucial point on the front line against communist expansion in Asia. To offset Whisky 3's withdrawal, in January 1971 the New Zealand government committed the 1st New Zealand Army Training Team (1 NZATTV) to Vietnam. The agreement also included an oral history project and the creation of a digital archive (www.vietnamwar.govt.nz) for Vietnam veterans and their families. The New Zealand publics’ opinion was polarized due to New Zealand’s involvement in the war, and public debate was generated over New Zealand’s foreign policy in particular how it relied on an alliance-based security. Protests were initially peaceful and included sit-ins or teach-ins or marches, but they eventually erupted into violence. Some served as intelligence officers with 1ATF. [75], Two small RNZAF detachments were attached to U.S Marine Corps A-4 Skyhawk squadron VMA-311 at Chu Lai Air Base in January 1970 and October 1970. On 27 May 1965 Holyoake announced the government's decision to send 161 Battery, Royal New Zealand Artillery to South Vietnam in a combat role. [16], Following agreement between the Australian and New Zealand Governments in late February 1968, V2 Company and W Company and A, B, and C Companies of 2RAR were amalgamated to become 2RAR/NZ (ANZAC) Battalion (2RAR/NZ) from 1 March 1968. 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